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Instead, critical constructivists want to reconstruct an identity — that is, find out what are its component parts — which they believe are created through written or spoken communication among and between peoples.

Language plays a key role for critical constructivists because it constructs, and has the ability to change, social reality. Most constructivists, however, position themselves between these two more extreme ends of the spectrum. Bhutan is a Buddhist kingdom located in the Himalayas. On top of this, Bhutan shares a national border with the two major powers in Asia: China in the north and India in the south.

To date there remains an ongoing border dispute between Bhutan and China and there have been reports that the Chinese army has made several incursions into Bhutan. From a realist perspective, one would argue that Bhutan is in an unfavourable position as it is hindered by its geographical location and cannot compete for power with its neighbours. The preservation of its national sovereignty would likely depend on the outcome of the greater competition between China and India.

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For example, when Tibet was annexed by China, Bhutan felt threatened. As a result, it closed its border in the north and turned to India, its neighbour in the south.


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From that moment onward, Bhutan perceived China as a potential threat and India as a friend. To date, Bhutan and India perceive each other as friends whereas Bhutan has no official relations with China.

Intersubjectivity in Economics : Agents and Structures

These social relationships represent the ideational structure that originated from the meaning given to the material structure. It is important to note, however, that the social relationships are subject to change depending on the ideas, beliefs and actions of Bhutan, India and China. For example, an agreement on the border dispute between China and Bhutan could change how both countries perceive each other.

This change might lead to the establishment of an official relationship, the nature of which is friendship rather than enmity. A constructivist is well placed to detect and understand these changes since their object of enquiry focuses on the social relationships between states. Bhutan has also developed a distinctive national identity that differentiates it from its larger neighbours.

This policy demanded the observance of a code of conduct known as Driglam Namzhag. It also reinforced the rules for wearing a national dress — the gho for men and the kira for women.

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In addition to this, Dzongkha was selected as the national language of Bhutan. The Driglam Namzhag can be thought of as a regulative norm because the aim of the policy is to direct and constrain behaviour. There are three main ethnic groups: the Ngalongs, the Sharchhops and the Lhotshampas, who are of Nepali descent.

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Of these, the Ngalongs and the Sharchhops are Buddhists, while the Lhotshampas are mostly Hindus who speak the Nepali language. The policy had severe consequences for the Lhotshampas as Nepali was no longer taught in schools and people who could not prove residence in Bhutan prior to were classified as non-nationals.

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Consequently, thousands of Lhotshampas were expelled from Bhutan in the s. Thus, the code of conduct is used by the Bhutanese authorities to create cultural unity and to stimulate citizens to reflect upon their cultural distinctiveness, which is paramount in creating a national identity. As mentioned earlier in the chapter, a norm needs to go through a lifecycle before it becomes established. In the case of Bhutan, we can witness the first phase, norm emergence , in the creation of the Driglam Namzhag by the Bhutanese authorities.

The second phase, norm acceptance , required Bhutanese citizens to accept the Driglam Namzhag, including the national dress and Dzongkha as the national language. Once this acceptance occurred, norm internalisation occurs.


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The completion of this process entails that the behaviour of the Bhutanese citizens is circumscribed by these norms and practices. This circumscription also shows the constitutive nature of the Driglam Namzhag, which created new actors — that is, Bhutanese citizens who act and behave according to specific rules.

We can see, for instance, that these norms and practices are regulated to date. Conventions of coordination and the framing. Social networks and information. Towards a normative economics. The theory of conventions and a new theory of the firm. An intersubjective theory of value. Hayek vs Keynes.

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Name Index. Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis: Stockholm studies in In some cases, as with Chronicles of Narnia , disagreements about order necessitate the creation of more than one series. Tip: If the series has an order, add a number or other descriptor in parenthesis after the series title eg. By default, it sorts by the number, or alphabetically if there is no number.

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